The Science behind AlphaTrolTM
NOTE: The scientific basis for each of the two major components of AlphaTrol™ is extensive and rich. Many studies attest to the efficacy and safety of alpha glycerylphosphorylcholine and of resveratrol. This report is but a small summary of some of the results from a sampling of the studies.
Scientific studies demonstrate the efficacy of the first component of AlphaTrolTM Alpha-GPC
Alpha-GPC (alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine) is a phospholipid which provides a uniquely non-electrically-charged source of choline. This lack of charge most likely accounts for its ability to pass over the blood-brain-barrier. Studies (Abbiati-1993) show that Alpha-GPC increases free plasma choline more quickly than other uncharged choline precursors.
|Enzymes in the brain split a-Glycerylphosphorylcholine (Alpha-GPC) into Glycerolphosphate and Choline and easily cross the blood-brain barrier for the synthesis of phosphatidylcholine and acetylcholine, both essential for the maintenance and function of neuronal brain cells.|
Another major benefit of Alpha-GPC seems to hinge on its unique molecular structure. A simple enzymatic process easily breaks Alpha-GPC into two components: Glycerolphosphate and choline. These two pieces easily pass through the blood-brain-barrier and each provides particular benefit to enhanced brain function.
The Glycerolphosphate molecule is quickly converted into phosphatidylcholine which is used to repair and replace damaged and/or aging membranes of brain cells.
Choline is used to synthesize the essential neurotransmitter, acetylcholine. Acetylcholine is the vehicle used to carry all electronic messages from the end of one nerve cell to the receptor of the next.
Through the years, many substances have been tested and drugs have been developed to enhance memory and brain function. To date, nothing seems to be as effective or have as lasting effect at Alpha-GPC.
What follows is a summary of some of the recent studies comparing Alpha-GPC with other agents.
Alpha-GPC superior to acetyl-l-carnitine in Improving Thinking and Memory
|Alpha-GPC superior to acetyl-l-carnitine (ST200) in SDAT Study in improving memory and thinking skills as measured by Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE)|
|Results as reported by Parnetti L, et al, "Multicentre study of l-a-glyceryl- phosphorylcholine vs. ST200 among patients with probable Senile Dementia of Alzheimer's Type" Drugs & Aging, No. 3 (2), 1993.|
Subjects treated with Alpha-GPC obtained greater improvement of their general and cognitive conditions than those treated with ST200. In particular, Alpha-GPC treatment produced significantly better results as measured by the GGS and SCAG scales (universally-used psychometric and physiologic tests for evaluating thinking and memory ability in age-related brain dysfunction) resulting in a higher quality of life for Alpha-GPC treated individuals and their families.
Studies Show Alpha-GPC Superior to Cytidine Diphosphocholine in Improving Memory, Cognitive Skills, and Behavior Parameters
|Three multicenter studies with diagnosed with Multi-Infarct Dementia, (MID), compared Alpha-GPC with cytidine diphosphocholine (CDP). The first study (Di Perri) demonstrated that Alpha-GPC was significantly superior to CDP in improving memory functions.|
The second study (Frattola) showed that Alpha-GPC provides faster and more complete improvement in thinking skills, somatic functioning, memory, and word fluency.
In the third study (Muratorio) Alpha-GPC treatment significantly improved memory, cognitive skills, and behavioral parameters throughout the 3 month study. The Alpha-GPC subjects also showed very high improvement at the follow up examination 30 days beyond the cessation of treatment.
Clinical Trials Demonstrate Alpha-GPC Superior to Oxiracetam in Boosting Memory Ability
Two studies with a total of 90 subjects with moderately severe Age Associated Memory Impairment compared Alpha-GPC and Oxiracetam. One trial (Abbati) showed similar, positive results for both agents until the 8th post-treatment follow up week. Positive residual effects of Alpha-GPC were consistently better than Oxiracetam's results.
Alpha-GPC subjects performed much better than Oxiracetam with rating scale scores and psychometric tests in a second study (Paciaroni and Tomassini).
Animal Studies Suggest Daily Alpha-GPC Use Counters Neuron Loss and Memory Loss
Researchers (Ricci) report that daily Alpha-GPC supplementation "counteracts some anatomical changes of the rat hippocampus occurring in old age." Neurons in the hippocampus relay information to the cerebellum. There are other studies that show Alpha-GPC also helps restore acetylcholine receptor sites. The number of these important sites tends to decrease with age.
Amnesia has been directly tied to blocked or decreased levels of acetylcholine. As a result, scientists have used this phenomenon to evaluate the ability of Alpha-GPC to reverse this damage.
In a recent study (Lopez) the oral administration of Alpha-GPC reverses amnesia and partially counteracts the loss of acetylcholine in the brain induced by the drug scopolamine.
Researchers in another study (Sigala) found that oral administration of Alpha-GPC actually prevented learning impairment and was able to reverse scopolamine-induced amnesia.
Human Performance Tests Show Alpha-GPC Increases HGH, Strength and Muscle Power
Human Growth Hormone|
Recent placebo-controlled tests performed by the Ohio Institute of Health and human Performance, showed Alpha-GPC doubles growth hormone response in the first 30 minutes after exercise.
Peak Force and Peak Generation
The same tests showed that subjects were able to generate approximately 14% more peak force during six sets of squats when given an oral administration of Alpha-GPC 90 minutes prior to the exercise. These subjects also produced an average of 13% more peak power during the same exercise.
Based on the researchers' discovery of a lower Respiratory Exchange Rate (RER) levels in the same subjects, they suggest that Alpha-GPC may also increase fat metabolism during the post-exercise period.
|Alpha-GPC Produces Substantial Increase in Peak Bench Press Force|
Scientific studies demonstrate efficacy of second AlphaTrolTM component — Resveratrol
To confirm that resveratrol was the active ingredient in grape extract that provides cardiovascular benefit, researchers (Tomé-Carneiro) designed a triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial with coronary artery disease patients. Each patient received one of three different supplements (a placebo, conventional grape extract without resveratrol, and grape extract with resveratrol) for six months. At the end of six months, supplement doses were doubled and administered for another six months. Serum biomarkers were examined after the testing period and also again 12 months after the end of the trial period. The grape extract with resveratrol substantially out-performed the other two supplements and the researchers concluded that resveratrol provided significant cardiovascular benefits.
Animal studies (Anekonda)have demonstrated the ability of antioxidant qualities of resveratrol to protect neuronal tissues against free-radical attack. Other investigators have reported the same kind of protection for skin tissues (Afaq, Baliga).
Dietary supplementation with resveratrol has been demonstrated to significantly reduce beta amyloid plaque formation in the brains of mice. Researchers (Karuppagounder) reported an astounding 90% reduction of these waste deposits in the hypothalamus.
Resveratrol supplementation has been shown to activate the SIRT1 genes (Lagouge). These genes that regulate the intracellular aging, inflammation, resistance to stress, use of energy, and insulin sensitivity. And other studies (Baur) demonstrate that it improves the health and survival of mice on high-calorie diets.
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Di Perri R., et al, “A multicentre trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine vs Cytidine diphosphocholine in patients with vascular dementia” The Journal of International Medical Research, 1991, 19.RETURN
Frattola L. et al, “Multicenter clinical comparison of the effects of choline alfoscerate and cytidine diphosphocholine in the treatment of multi-infarct dementia,” Current Therapeutic Research, Vol. 49, No. 4, April 1991.RETURN
Karuppagounder SS, et al, “Dietary supplementation with resveratrol reduces plaque pathology in a transgenic model of Alzheimer’s disease,” Neurochem Int (2009) Feb;54(2):111-8.RETURN
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Lagouge M, et al, “Resveratrol improves mitochondrial function and protects against metabolic disease by activating SIRT1 and PGC-1alpha,” Cell (2006) Dec;127 (6): 1109–22.RETURN
Lopez CM, et al, “Effect of a new cognition enhancer, alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine on scopolamine-induced amnesia and brain acetylcholine,” Pharmacol Biochem Behav, Vol. 39, No. 4, pp 835-40, Aug 1991.RETURN
Muratorio A. et al, “A neurotropic approach to the treatment of multi-infarct dementia using a-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine,” Current Therapeutic Research, Vol. 52, No. 5, Nov. 1992.RETURN
Paciaroni E., Tomassini P.F. “Clinical trial on efficacy and tolerability of a-GPC (choline alfoscerate) controlled versus oxiracetam in patients with mild to moderate mental decay of vascular origin,” Giornale Italiano di Ricerche Cliniche e Terapeutiche, Vol. 14, No. 29, 1993.RETURN
Parnetti L, et al, “Multicentre study of l-a-glyceryl-phosphorylcholine vs. ST200 among patients with probable Senile Dementia of Alzheimer’s Type” Drugs & Aging, Vol. 2, No. 3, 1993.RETURN
Ricci A et al, “Oral choline alfoscerate counteracts age-dependent loss of mossy fibres in the rat hippocampus,” Mechanics of Ageing Development, Vol. 66, No. 1, pp 81-91, 1992.RETURN
Sharma M, Gupta YK, “Chronic treatment with trans resveratrol prevents intracerebroventricular streptozotocin induced cognitive impairment and oxidative stress in rats,” Life Sci (2002) Oct 11;71(21):2489-98.RETURN
Sigala S, et al, “L-alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine antagonizes scopolamine-induced amnesia and enhances hippocampal cholinergic transmission in the rat,” European Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 211, No. 3, pp 351-358, Feb. 1992.RETURN
Sinha K, Chaudhary G, Gupta YK, “Protective effect of resveratrol against oxidative stress in middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke in rats,” Life Sci (2002) Jun 28;71(6):655-65.RETURN
Tomé-Carneiro J, et al, “Grape Resveratrol Increases Serum Adiponectin and Downregulates Inflammatory Genes in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: A Triple-Blind, Placebo- Controlled, One-Year Clinical Trial in Patients with Stable Coronary Artery Disease,” Espín Cardiovasc Drugs Ther. (2013) February; 27(1): 37–48. RETURN
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